Grammaticalization <a href="">czy hitch dziaÅ‚a</a> means the process of go from a completely fledged lexical item so you’re able to a great grammatical morpheme more than periods of time


sixteen tu The newest REFLEXIVE PREFIX Within the ZULU – An excellent TYPOLOGICAL Direction Sonja Elizabeth. Bosch In this post I’ll investigate the roots of reflexive prefix within the Zulu, purchasing attention on the process of grammaticalization by which lexemes become grammatical formatives. Since reflexivization in some Bantu languages was opposed, the article will be in the type of a good typological investigation. During the Lehmann s () conversation of your own phenomena which can be commonly referred to as reflexive, it’s fascinating to notice which he assumes on four types of reflexives, namely 0) autophoric nouns which can be typical nouns eg body, inhale, soul, head you to definitely ple, inside Sanscrit the fresh new noun dtman definition breath, soul, as well as in Basque, brand new noun burua definition lead, are used to display the equivalent of English notice. Autophoric nouns put given that reflexives are often accompanied by a good possessive pronoun, like in next example out of Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani electricity:acc set:region getting fuel in himself (ii) reflexive nouns that are nouns expressing the meaning self and absolutely nothing else, including the Italian language selbst me personally and you can Finnish itse just like the depicted regarding adopting the advice: 344

17 German (2) Ich komme selbst I’m coming me personally Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-si? care Do you need the fresh new seats for your self? When you look at the dialects such as Finnish, Hungarian and you will Turkish reflexive nouns bring possessive affixes, during most other languages such German or even the Relationship languages, these nouns commonly generally speaking along side possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns with the main purpose of referring back to the niche, such as the Italian language sich into the: German (4) Sie waschen sich He’s laundry themselves (iv) spoken reflexives which can be verb affixes exhibiting that step for some reason influences the topic, like in the following advice: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-see the guy noticed himself Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di guy tidy-refl-at night boy washed themselves Lehmann () emphasizes the boundaries between your kinds was water and states why these four categories of reflexive factors are now towards the a level from expanding grammaticalization.

Put differently, one could come across which once the an excellent continuum from alter that will feel represented below: 345

18 Lexical item Grammatical * morpheme Lehmann (ff) will bring instances in various dialects to illustrate the changes that have took place or will still be taking place from a single category to help you next. The whole process of alter is verified by the Faltz () exactly who, pertaining to his morphological difference between two head type of reflexives, specifically NP-reflexives that could put a nominal morpheme becoming lead of your own reflexive noun phrase, and you may spoken reflexives, composed of reflexive pronouns being cliticized on the verb, remarks: Languages could possibly get move from one rod to your other, in reality, such as for instance course try always in the NP-reflexive rod on the spoken reflexive rod. During the Zulu reflexiveness was knew as good prefix which in person precedes the fresh verb base. The newest reflexive prefix is actually invariable in form, meaning that it is an effective morphological shape hence stays ongoing aside from the category that the antecedent belongs. This really is clearly illustrated regarding following advice during the Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya the newest-son he-himself smack the guy struck himself (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini the latest-woman she-herself-see in-reflect The woman observes herself about mirror In these advice -zi- is the reflexive morpheme plus the steps regarding strike and watch try directed back abreast of the particular grammatical sufferers, which is, man and you can girl. It is fascinating you to when you look at the generative training, a critical notion is made to your underlying construction out-of sentences with reflexives, namely NP1 – V – NP1. On top, such as for example a property is ungrammatical in the Bantu dialects when your a couple of NPs is co-referential and similar in shape, age.g. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho cheated Sipho In Zulu including a phrase is created grammatical by the installation out-of an effective reflexive prefix from the verb and the fresh new removal of one’s co-referential noun. elizabeth.g. 346